Föderative Republik Brasilien 
Brazil - República Federativa do Brasil


A large republic, occupying nearly half of South America. Brazil was discovered by Europeans in 1500, and Portugal soon began colonizing the coastal areas. During 1808-21, after Napoleon had occupied Portugal, Brazil was the seat of the Portuguese empire. In 1821 the Portuguese king returned to Lisbon, leaving his son, Dom Pedro, to act as regent in Brazil. In 1822 Dom Pedro declared the independence of the Empire of Brazil. Although Dom Pedro and his son, Dom Pedro II, were popular, the feeling grew that an American monarchy was an anachronism, and in 1889 a bloodless coup established the republic. 

Since 1930, Brazil has often been ruled by various military regimes. A civilian government was in power 1956-64, and civilian rule was re-established in 1985. Ambitious industrial and agricultural programs since 1930 have capitalized on the country's enormous natural resources, and Brazil has become the leading industrial nation of Latin America. Economic growth has been slowed in recent years by income maldistribution and inflation.

 

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